Pancake Sunset - S.Pedro de Moel, Portugal

Pancake Sunset - S.Pedro de Moel, Portugal: A Stunning Display of Atmospheric Optics

Welcome to S.Pedro de Moel, Portugal, where nature often treats observers to breathtaking displays of atmospheric optics. One such phenomenon is the Pancake Sunset, captured by Luis Carreira in June 2003. This mesmerizing event showcases a mock-mirage sunset, caused by multiple inversion layers interacting with sunlight. Let's delve into the intricacies of this captivating spectacle and explore the science behind it.

At first glance, Carreira's image reveals a complex arrangement of bright and dim inverted images of the sun. The upper image descends and takes on a distinctive 'tin hat' shape, indicative of strong inversions. Below it, a dimmer inverted image rises, while striations from lower left to upper right emerge due to waves in the inversion layers. Furthermore, a third dim inverted image ascends from the ocean's depths, possibly visible through a leaky thermal inversion duct.

The Pancake Sunset is a prime example of atmospheric refraction, which occurs when light bends as it passes through air layers with varying densities. In this case, the bending of light creates multiple images of the setting sun, resulting in a stunning visual display. To better understand this phenomenon, let's explore the key factors contributing to its formation:

  1. Inversion Layers: Pancake Sunsets require the presence of multiple inversion layers in the atmosphere. Inversions occur when temperature increases with altitude, causing air density to decrease as you ascend. These layers act as lenses, refracting sunlight and creating the mirage-like images seen in Carreira's photograph.

  2. Wave Interactions: The striations visible in the image are a result of wave interactions within the inversion layers. As waves propagate through the atmosphere, they cause fluctuations in temperature and air density, further distorting the path of light and contributing to the mesmerizing patterns observed during a Pancake Sunset.

  3. Leaky Thermal Inversion Ducts: The third inverted image seen ascending from the ocean's surface may be a result of a leaky thermal inversion duct. These ducts can occur when temperature inversions are present near the water's surface, allowing light to travel through and create additional inverted images.

Understanding the science behind the Pancake Sunset enriches our appreciation of this natural phenomenon. However, it is important to note that observing such events requires favorable atmospheric conditions. Here are some key factors that contribute to the occurrence of a Pancake Sunset:

  • Temperature Inversions: The presence of strong and well-defined temperature inversions is crucial for the formation of multiple inversion layers necessary for a Pancake Sunset. These inversions often occur during calm and stable weather conditions, allowing for optimal light refraction.

  • Moisture Content: The moisture content in the air can influence the formation of inversion layers. Higher humidity levels may enhance the likelihood of temperature inversions, increasing the chances of witnessing a Pancake Sunset.

  • Geographical Features: The proximity of S.Pedro de Moel to the ocean plays a significant role in creating the unique atmospheric conditions necessary for Pancake Sunsets. Coastal areas often experience temperature inversions due to the interaction between land and sea breezes, providing an ideal setting for these optical phenomena.

In conclusion, the Pancake Sunset at S.Pedro de Moel, Portugal, exemplifies the captivating beauty of atmospheric optics. Through the interaction of multiple inversion layers, wave dynamics, and temperature fluctuations, this natural spectacle offers a visual feast for those fortunate enough to witness it. Understanding the underlying scientific principles enriches our appreciation of these awe-inspiring displays and reminds us of the intricate wonders that unfold in our atmosphere. So, next time you find yourself in S.Pedro de Moel, keep an eye out for the Pancake Sunset and prepare to be spellbound by nature's artistic prowess.

Pancake Sunset at S.Pedro de Moel, Portugal . Imaged by Luis Carreira (site) June 2003. A mock-mirage, M-Mir sunset produced by more than one inversion layer. The complex bright upper image of the sun descends and forms a 'tin hat' shape characteristic of strong inversions. Below it a dimmer inverted image rises. The striations from lower left to upper right are produced by waves in the inversion layers. Lower still, a dim third inverted image ascends from the ocean - this image could be one seen through the far end of a leaky thermal inversion duct. Image ©2003 Luis Carreira, shown with permission.

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Reference Atmospheric Optics

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  • "Pancake Sunset - S.Pedro de Moel, Portugal". Atmospheric Optics. Accessed on April 13, 2024. https://atoptics.co.uk/blog/pancake-sunset-s-pedro-de-moel-portugal/.

  • "Pancake Sunset - S.Pedro de Moel, Portugal". Atmospheric Optics, https://atoptics.co.uk/blog/pancake-sunset-s-pedro-de-moel-portugal/. Accessed 13 April, 2024

  • Pancake Sunset - S.Pedro de Moel, Portugal. Atmospheric Optics. Retrieved from https://atoptics.co.uk/blog/pancake-sunset-s-pedro-de-moel-portugal/.